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营业额毛利率双降连续4年亏损 皇朝家私或自救

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 大佬抢搭楼市新政头班车 孙宏斌暗示全面涨价 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

住房需求 理当被最大程度呵护

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

As regulations tighten at home, China’s gold companies are increasingly looking to make overseas acquisitions. Last year Shandong Gold agreed to buy 50 per cent of Barrick Gold’s Veladero mine in Argentina for $960m.
第一种是把亚洲视作一个被证明为排斥快速发展的市场,在起飞之前需要重大结构和监管改变。第二种是看到突然出现上行惊喜的可能性。
单词refrigerator 联想记忆:
中国国产3D奇幻/冒险片《捉妖记》2015年7月在国内上映后打破一系列票房纪录,成为2015年中国内地最卖座的电影
During the 40 days of Chunyun period, the inter-city transportation faces great challenges. The demand for tickets far exceeds the supply. Various measures are adopted to alleviate the problem by opening many temporary trains (numbers starting with letter L), extending the working hours of booking office and opening up more booths.
8. Employment futures weak as pensions drain states, municipalities
本田执行副总裁里克o斯考斯特克在一项声明中表示:“我们已经解决了这一问题。本田已经在早期预警报告中采取了一些重大举措来解决过去的缺陷问题,现在我们将更进一步,加强这些举措。我们将继续与国家公路交通安全管理局充分合作,提高透明度,改进报告工作。”

No. Ms Merkel may accept a small eurozone investment fund, but it will fall short of the French president’s ambitions. Mr Macron wants a “road map” to a budget equivalent to several percentage points of eurozone output, supervised by a finance minister, all to absorb economic shocks. Ms Merkel is inclined to acquiesce, but she has emerged politically weakened from federal elections and will be unable to impose such a decision on her largely sceptical public.
201001/95381.shtml
伊纳里图表示:“我差点忘记感谢所有参与拍摄的美国印第安人了,没有他们,这部电影不可能拍摄出来。我能够和这些人一起活着拍完这部电影,心中的惊喜和骄傲难以用语言表达。”
Harvard Business School, London Business School (LBS) and MIT Sloan School of Management, three of the MBA ranking’s longstanding heavyweights, all lost ground to their competitors. Harvard drops two places to fourth, the first time in nine years that the Boston school has been outside the top three. London Business School falls three places to sixth, its lowest position in 14 years. MIT Sloan School of Management falls to 13th place, the first time in 10 years that it has been outside the top 10.
亚洲的商界女性在崛起:整个亚洲地区在榜单上的表现都非常抢眼,从中国和新加坡到新西兰和泰国,都能找到女强人的身影。亚洲的女性企业家群体正在崛起,例如张欣(排名第50)、孙亚芳(排名第77)和周凯旋(排名第80)。在政界,亚洲女性也在施展自己的抱负,例如新上榜的韩国总统朴槿惠(排名第11),缅甸反对派领袖、国会议员昂山素季(排名第29),澳大利亚总理茱莉亚·杰拉德(排名第28),以及泰国总理英拉·西那瓦(排名第31)。

Footnotes

  • 北京市住建委:7家房地产经纪机构 违规发布房源信息被查处
  • 特约专栏作家安东尼·盖尔恩是Paragon欧洲合作伙伴的常务董事。目前位于伦敦。

改编自上世纪70年代真实贿赂事件的影片《美国骗局》当晚表现更加抢眼,埃米?亚当斯(Amy Adams)和珍妮弗?劳伦斯(Jennifer Lawrence)凭此片分获最佳女主角和最佳女配角奖。《为奴十二年》虽在提名数量上与《美国骗局》打平,参与了七个奖项的角逐,但当晚只摘得最佳剧情片一个奖项。
别让自己工作得太舒服
在1991年至2010年之间,癌症死亡率显著下降了20%,这比过去十年下降总和的10%还要多。总有一天,我们会跟癌症说再见。
需要德语技能的工作也在2016年的第三季度显著增长。那些想做德语翻译工作的人或许近来很幸运。
《发生什么了,西蒙妮小姐?》(What Happened, Miss Simone?),导演:利兹·加布斯(Liz Garbus)。
而其他的队伍还有在尝试赢球的。小牛队,在3-13的战绩面前,骄傲地说他们不会垫底。但是,明年被认为是近年来最好的NBA选秀,有Markelle Fultz, Jayson Tatum, Lonzo Ball, Josh Jackson, Harry Gile, OG Anumoby, Ivan Rabb……等等优质球员。

中央深改委:完善建设用地使用权转让、出租、抵押二级市场

References

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